A Beginner’s Guide to Bulgarian


Bulgarian is the official language of the Republic of Bulgaria and the dominant speech community in the country. It is the most spoken language in the nation and is the medium of instruction at all levels of education. The vocabulary of Bulgarian extends to distant relatives and is derived from many other languages.

Bulgarian verbs can vary in aspect, tense, and voice. They can be indicative, imperative, perfective, or subjunctive. Infinitive is often replaced by subjunctive in complex expressions. During Ottoman rule, a large number of Turkish words were adopted into Bulgarian, which led to a new set of vocabulary.

Verbs in Bulgarian can also form abstract particles. Several of these particles are commonly used at the end of a question. However, there is no precise translation for them in English. For instance, a literal translation of the sentence “nobody has done anything, anywhere” would be “nobody has ever done nothing, nowhere, and nothing has ever done anything”.

The word order of Bulgarian is usually determined by the topic. Words have been borrowed from numerous languages, including Classical, Latin, Greek, German, and French. Since 1989, technical terms have started to penetrate the language. Among them are technical terms related to physics and medicine. This is evident in the fact that some words are specialized in those fields.

Bulgarian is divided into three grammatical genders, which are feminine, masculine, and neuter. Nouns are inflected according to their gender. Generally, nouns ending in consonants are masculine. If a word ends in -o, it is almost always neuter. On the other hand, if it ends in -a, it is usually feminine.

Nouns are inflected for number and definiteness. Adjectives are inflected to agree with nouns. Pronouns are inflected to be either personal, relative, or possessive. These pronouns are also inflected for gender, case, and number.

Bulgarian verbs have five types of mood. Each type of verb can be either imperfective or perfective. Perfective verbs signify completion of the action or a conclusion. Imperfective verbs can form past or present imperfective forms.

The inferential mood is rarely documented as a separate verb form in Bulgarian. Most contemporary linguists consider it to be a verbal morphosis. However, it is thought to be a morphological sub-instance of the quasi-infinitive construction with da.

In Bulgarian, the subjunctive is considered a morphological sub-instance in the normal finite verb form. However, a number of verbs have been construed as subjunctive in Bulgarian. Traditionally, Bulgarian grammars have taught that there are four types of moods. One of these is inferential, which describes unwitnessed events.

In Bulgarian, there are also five classes of mutables, which are nouns. All the nouns have gender and number. Some nouns are inflected for number only, while others are inflected for both gender and number.

Bulgarian has five types of abstract particles. Typically, these particles are used at the end of a question. They are primarily informal and have no precise translation in English. A Bulgarian noun is usually inflected for number, but this may change from person to person.