The Bulgarian language is a language which is spoken primarily in Bulgaria and in various countries including Romania, Serbia and Greece. It belongs to the South Slavic group. Despite its relatively small size, the language has been influenced by various languages, especially Greek and Turkish. A majority of the vocabulary is borrowed from these languages. Some words from classical languages like Latin and Greek have also entered the language.
Bulgarian grammar is divided into two aspects: lexical and grammatical. The verb can vary in tense, aspect and gender. However, most Bulgarian verbs can be grouped into perfective-imperfective pairs. Perfective verbs signify the completion of an action, while imperfective verbs are neutral in their implication.
Verbs in the subjunctive mood express an opinion about future events. Most Bulgarian verbs take the present subjunctive form. This is the most common form and often confused with the present indicative. In some cases, the subjunctive mood is used instead of the infinitive. Generally, the present subjunctive is not grammatically incorrect.
Bulgarian nouns and pronouns exhibit three cases: personal, number and possessive. Nouns ending in -o or -ia are usually neuter, whereas nouns ending in consonants are masculine. There are nouns derived from Greek, Persian and Russian. Other language influences include the Thracian, Old Church Slavonic and Middle High German.
Pronouns are the words that agree with the nouns of a sentence in number, gender and definiteness. They can be used to ask a question or plead. An example of a pronoun is da, which means “no” in Bulgarian. Another example of a pronoun is ama, which means “but”.
Pronouns in the Bulgarian language include the indefinitive, negative, relative and possessive. There are also several abstract particles. These particles are rarely translated into English, but have become more prominent since 1989, when technical terms were introduced into the language.
Pronouns are accompanied by grammatical case, which can range from simple to complex. For example, the noun “shopska” (pronounced SHOW-shka) is a salad, which is made from cucumbers and white brined sheep cheese. The noun “da” is pronounced with the uvvexoid pronunciation, while the noun “ama” is pronounced with the urvey-extended pronunciation.
Bulgarian has a vast vocabulary for family relationships. There are nouns for aunts, uncles, cousins and grandparents. While there is no official religion in Bulgaria, most religious Bulgarians are members of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. Non-religious minorities include Muslims, Protestants, Pentecostals and Evangelicals.
Bulgarian is a member of the European Union and NATO. In 2007, Bulgaria became a member of the Eurozone. The country’s natural-growth rate was significantly below the global norm, though its death rate was slightly above the global average in the early 21st century. After World War II, Bulgaria’s death rate dropped dramatically. As the population grew older, the death rate began to rise again.
Bulgarian is written in the Cyrillic alphabet, which was developed in the 19th century. Since 1945, the alphabet has been streamlined to thirty letters. During that time, many letters, such as yat and yus, were eliminated.